A Byzantine error (interactive consistency, congruity of sources, avalanche of errors, Byzantine correspondence problem, Byzantine generals problem, and Byzantine failure) is a condition of a computer system, especially distributed computer systems, where components can fail and where there is imperfect information about the failure of a component. The term takes its name from an allegory, the “problem of the Byzantine generals”, which was designed to describe a situation in which the actors of the system must agree on a concerted strategy to avoid a catastrophic failure of the system, but some of these actors are unreliable. Byzantine bug tolerance mechanisms use components that repeat an incoming message (or only their signature) for other recipients of that incoming message. The algorithm must conditionally guarantee (a), regardless of what the traitors do. Loyal generals should not only agree, but agree on a reasonable plan. The Byzantine error tolerance can be reached if the nodes that are functioning properly on the network agree on their values. For missing messages, a default voting value can be indicated, that is: We can assume that the message of a given node is “defective” if the message is not received within a set period of time.. . .