(iv) The Trade-Related Investment Measures Agreement (TRIM) prohibits the use of most performance requirements for commodity investments, as included in its “clear list”. However, developing countries are allowed to maintain TRIM as long as the measures are compatible with the specific exemptions authorized by Article XVIII of the 1994 GATT because of the economic development requirement. Prior to the Uruguay Round negotiations, the link between trade and investment under the GATT was little taken into account. The health community needs increased capacity at all levels – international, regional and state – to enable an effective approach to trade policy and AU-related issues. Health officials in both developing and industrialized countries need skills development, both in contract negotiations and in understanding the impact of international law (existing and proposed) on their domestic law. At the international level, WHO has limited internal capacity and does not appear to be able to support developing countries to the extent necessary. The guarantee of technical expertise in the negotiation and implementation of ATAs (particularly for developing countries)  should be seen as a necessary role for both WHO and the WTO. An international convention on corporate responsibility in the field of human rights would have its own mechanisms for implementation and implementation. These include provisions for states, adoption of advertising rules, contractual preferences for companies with an appropriate human rights and environmental impact history; and the imposition of criminal responsibility for human rights violations, administrative and monetary sanctions; In this article, we see how ESEs should evolve to recognize health and social policy objectives, but we recognize that the transformation of these changes would require a fundamental philosophical change in international trade and investment policies. This article contains some instructions for TIA designs and processes that will be useful to governments and NGOs when IATs are redesigned and negotiated. However, it does not provide solutions to broader policy issues to achieve such changes.
The concept of trade-related investment measures (TRIMs) is not defined in the agreement. However, the agreement contains in an appendix a clear list of measures incompatible with Article III:4 of the GATT or Article XI:1 of the 1994 GATT. The comprehensive approach involves substantial changes to current models of trade and investment agreements, in particular (i) health, social security and environmental objectives would be recognized as legitimate and implemented as a right in their own right; (ii) changes to dispute resolution procedures, from one state to another or from an investor; (iii) More respect for the international legal framework on health, environmental protection and human rights; (iv) greater coherence across the international legal framework; (v) limit the privileges of investors and (vi) the enforceable responsibilities of companies to contribute to health, the environment, human rights and other public interest objectives. We also identify some limited changes that could be considered as an alternative to the proposed comprehensive approach. A number of studies have shown how to deal with some of the negative effects of AI (for example. B [55,56,57,58.59]). In particular, UNCTAD has presented guidelines for reforming the development and implementation of investment contracts .